The History of Tigrinia

November 16, 2012
After a multitude of fights, contracts and intrigue, at which England, Egypt, the Osmanic empire, Italy were involved and out of Ethiopia emperor Johannes 4 and the later emperor Menelik, Italy established at that 1. January 1890 the colonies Eritrea (country at the red sea, that Mare Erythraeum the antique) in the boundaries valid highly today, that is with the Mereb than a southern boundary after Tigray there. Legal basis was that 1889 with the Menelik become just now emperor closed contract by Wuchale (Italian "Uccialli "written) whereby that was rather wrong "right "in the Italian handling: while Meneliks dispatched Makonnen, that father Haile Selassies signed, at that 1. October in Rome a rider to the boundaries, in which the speech of that was "present possession state, ", the Italian troops marched to the Mereb-river and partially in addition before That the Ethiopian signer of the contract was unknown. Rubenson meant that with the clause of that "actual possession "probably the highpoint of the double dealing Italy in the negotiations had been reached with the Ethiopians. Italy Prime Minister Crispi had explained then also on other occasion, would be it totally correct to deceive "an African ".
The second fraud point in the contract of Wuchale was a clause that read in the Amharic, the Ethiopian emperor could make use of in diplomatic questions of the services of Italy, in the Italians however with Ethiopia would have become the protectorate, what Italy shortly after signature of the contract also sounds necked announced. Both together was reason for the battle of Adua(Adwa, Adwua) in Tigray, in which Menelik 1896 struck the Italian colonial army. In the contract of Addis Abeba, the contract of Wuchale was canceled yet in the same year; Italy recognized the independence of Ethiopia on and turned back accepted border on previously expressed claims to Tigray; Ethiopia accepted the border upto Mereb.

Tigrinya from the highland of Eritrea and the northern part of Ethiopia create the empire Aksum(include parts of Yemen, Sudan, Dschibouti)
The final end of the Meroitic state is still a matter of considerable discussion. The royal burials seem to finish at some time in the early part of the fourth century AD, though this doues not mean the end of occupation of Meroe town. the archaeological evidence from there is very difficult to interpret owing to the surface erosion that has taken place, but it seems likely that occupation continued very much later - even if the centralized administration associated with royalty may have come to an end. The conventional view has been that the Meroitic state was dealt its final blow by an expedition of King Ezana (Aezanes in Greek

probably since this time the name Eritrea exist, Eritrea means the land on the redsea which come from the latin of europe

) of Aksum at some time close to AD 350. The evidence for this expedition is to be found in an inscription at Aksum written in Ge'ez, which describes an Aksumite campaign in the Island of Meroe, though there are a number of varying interpretations as to the nature of the campaign and the situation at Meroe at the time.
The text itself begins with the protocol normal in Aksumite inscriptions of this period. Ezana states the countries over which he claimed to rule, including some in South Arabia, such as Himyar and Saba, and some in the neighbourhood of Aksum, such as Bega and Kasa (presumably Kush or Meroe), thus implying that he already controlled it. The inscription then describes the campaign and says that Ezana 'took the field against the Noba, when the people revolted', and 'when they boasted, "he will not cross the Takazze"', and when they made attacks on identified neighbouring peoples - the Mangurto, Hana and Barya(Baria) - and plundered envoys sent by Ezana. The Takazze is the river Atbara, and the text certainly implies that the Noba were a people previously subject to Aksumite rule and that the campaign was a punitive one. The text goes on to describe how he defeated the Noba at the crossing of the Atbara, burnt their towns and seized much material including stocks of cotton, and killed many of this enemy, among whom were several chiefs whose names are given. Two of these are described as riding on camels, and a priest from whom a silver crown and a gold ring were taken was also killed. The troops of Ezana then attacked both up and down the Nile from a point neat the junction of the Nile and the Atbara, and at this Junction Ezana erected a throne, presumably similar to stone platforms known from the neighbourhood of Aksum(Axum).
If this document is to be taken at face value, always a difficult matter with boastful royal inscriptions of this type, we must assume that Aksum(Axum) had established an authority over Meroe sufficient to warrant a campaign to maintain its authority. Possible evidence for earlier Aksumite activity at Meroe may be seen in a fragmentary inscription in Greek, certainly of Aksumite origin and, from its mention of Ares, a pagan god, probably to be dated prior to the Christianization of Ezana in about AD 350. Unfortunately the exact conditions of discovery of this inscription are not known, but Sayce, who published the piece, says it was brought to him at Meroe, and it probably came from there. The only other Aksumite object from Meroe is one copper coin found in excavations of 1969-70; this coin, though it does not bear the name of Ezana, is of about his time and, since it bears the symbol of a cross, cannot be earlier than AD 350. Since there were two levels of building above the spot at which the coin was found, it provides some evidence for occupation into at least the later fourth century. There is also a graffito on the wall of the chapel of pyramid
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